Melting ice, snow and rain accompanying eruptions are likely to provoke floods and hot mudflows (or lahars); 2. Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made. a duty to ensure the safety and wellbeing of identified rights holders). of the eruptions. How did Jose rizals parents raise their children. In the absence of relevant national laws, or when national laws are inadequate, ineffective or unenforced, there is room for the intervention of international law. For the reasons stated in Sect. In relation to the latter, procedures must exist for identifying not only shortcomings in the ex-ante regulatory measures but also any errors committed by those responsible (i.e. The governance of volcanic risks does not take place in a vacuum. For example, in Ecuador, the risk governance infrastructure relies upon the engagement and commitment of local representatives (e.g. In the early 1970s, definitions of risk identified the product of three separate and distinct elements—‘vulnerability’ on ‘exposure’ to a defined ‘hazard’ (UNESCO 1972). By the late nineteenth century, risk had “become central to the rhetoric of regulation”. In many cultures, volcanic risks are perceived to be susceptible to governance with the objective of achieving their effective mitigation, and have become the responsibility of the institutions and stakeholders of relevant social communities. The town of T was situated in a mountain district. Occasionally additional specialised bodies are established (e.g. During an emerging period of volcanic unrest, the relevant duty holders may change as the defined duties are transferred from one duty holder to another—sometimes as a result of changing hazard or risk characterisations. The growth of social media as a primary and often preferred news source has contributed to the rapid dissemination of information about volcanic eruptions and potential volcanic crises as an eruption begins. What are similarities between the scheme of work and lesson plan? When explosive volcanic eruptions occur, volcanic ash can be a health hazard, even miles away from the eruption. J Appl Volcanol 4:18. Volcanic eruptions. Wheatsheaf Books, Sussex, Hood C, Rothstein H (2001) Risk regulation under pressure: problem solving or blame shifting? These laws often use and build upon existing entities within existing administrative frameworks that have multi-level national, regional, district, municipal etc. For the purposes of governance, it may be helpful to quantify each identified exposure in units of both number (i.e. Oxford University Press, Oxford, Donovan A, Oppenheimer C (2014) Science, policy and place in volcanic disasters: insights from Montserrat. Notwithstanding these challenges, many jurisdictions have national laws that attempt to regulate the management of risks arising from natural hazards. USA, Canada and the Philippines) laws also regulate to varying degrees the qualification, licensing and registration of geologists and the practice of geology per se. ‘Standard equivocality’, which is the absence of commonly recognised standards (norms), is likely to exist in the absence of clear ‘legal’ requirements, approved codes of practice or guidance. Pyroclastic explosions; 2. Routledge, Oxford and New York, Luhmann N (1998) Observations on modernity. A ‘volcanic hazard’ is a volcanic scenario (defined by risk-related temporal, spatial and physical parameters) that may cause adverse consequences to people and/or valued assets. Public education before any eruption includes volcano awareness workshops and emergency response planning and exercises. Walker G, Whittle R, Medd W, Watson N (2010) Risk governance and natural hazards, Cap Haz-Net WP2 Report, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster. detailed implementing) laws and policing through specialist inspectorates. State responsibility for the deaths had never been investigated. The GNS has “sole responsibility for providing volcanic activity warnings and hence provides the function of a volcano observatory” (Jolly 2015, 299) under wide powers of delegation given to the Director of Civil Defence Emergency Management in the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002. Volcanic explosions, such as the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, can inject great quantities of dust particles into the stratosphere, which remain suspended for years, decreasing atmospheric transparency and resulting in measurable cooling worldwide. In the twenty first century, regulation is no longer confined to non-natural, human-made risks. By contrast, in a fact-finding process of scrutiny after a tragedy, the use of SMART targets may become more practicable. J Volcanol Geoth Res 264(2013):183–196, Power M (2007) Organised uncertainty: designing a world of risk management. Functional duties dictate the fulfilment of a particular role (e.g. Role of volcanic eruptions. Recent crises including the 2010 Icelandic Eyjafjallajökull eruption have highlighted the difficulty of co-ordinating and synthesising scientific input from many different disciplines and institutions and translating these into useful policy advice at very short notice (OECD 2015). Laws often establish, resource and empower regulators to monitor the performance of duty holders and to take enforcement actions, including prosecutions, against them if necessary. (2004) refers to volcanic hazards being one of three variables (hazard, exposure and vulnerability) that are convolved to produce volcanic risks. At-risk individuals and communities, businesses (such as aeroplane makers and operators within the aviation industry) and insurers have active and critical roles to play in the governance of volcanic risks, however, their roles are not the principal focus of either this chapter or Bretton et al. The European Convention of Human Rights (EConHR) lays down a positive obligation on States to take appropriate steps to safeguard the lives of citizens within their jurisdiction. Laws provide the formal scrutiny venues (courts, tribunals etc.) Did Britney Spears cheat on Justin Timberlake? 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